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HAMPI - WORLD HERITAGE SITE, KARNATAKA STATE, INDIA

The first ever made documentary film series on Hampi (Vijayanagar) - A World Heritage site situated in Hospet taluk, Bellary District, 353 Kms from Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka state, India.

A Tribute to yesterday - with tomorrow's eyes. An invitation to share glimpses of a glorious history. It is an eloquent, visual tribute to Hampi's glorious past.

This documentary film series footages includes little known nuggets and gems of history. These ancient milestones herald the splendour of Indian Cultural Heritage. Mute witnesses to a forgotten past, they transport us back, in a time machine, as it were, to an era of grace and grandeur. This is both an important historical narrative and a documentary which shows up Hampi in an entirely new light.
Evocative visuals, detailed explanations, smooth notes of music, specially commissioned and composed for this film - all heighten the freshness. This treatment heralds a news approach to filming and documenting historical structures and heritage sites.

This footages speak about the grand, awe - inspiring and majestic ruins of Hampi, and how fresh archaeological excavations are breathing new life into its monumental remains and inscriptions. Hampi's past, its establishment and other events are recalled. Some of the important temples and the ruins of the civil buildings are vividly described.

Hampi still has more than 500 temples and small shrines exceeds 1000 in number. Each is different from the other in style.

Hampi is not merely a monument in stone, but a beacon light, shining upon more than eight centuries of political maturity, religious tolerance, brilliances in art and architecture, and a system that nurtured an outlook far ahead of its time.

Hampi - a grand expanse of the ruins of a once great empire, Vijayanagar. A World Heritage site covered by the misty blanket of several centuries. All major monuments have been covered.

And many more series……

Read - Press Reviews

HAMPI - A WORLD HERITAGE SITE

HAMPI is a small village (lat. 15°20' N. and long. 76°30' E.) on the southern bank of the Tungabhadra in the Hospet Taluk of the Bellary District of Karnataka and is a well-known centre of pilgrimage. The place has been identified by some with the Kishkindha-kshetra of the Ramayana. In historic times Hampi, as the seat of the Vijayanagara empire, was famed for its fabulous magnificence and for its protection and promotion of Brahmanical religion and culture.

Hampi is situated in picturesque surroundings amidst striking and beautiful scenery depicting nature at its wildest and best. The site is naturally endowed with great strategic strength. The wide, torrential and almost unaffordable Tungabhadra on the one hand and the impassable craggy hills and ranges with bare and denuded massive boulders on the other, afford strong natural defences which the rulers used to the utmost advantage. These facts no doubt induced the Vijayanagara rulers to choose this site as their splendid imperial capital which was the admiration of the contemporary visitors. The city was called 'Vijayanagara' or the city of victory, or 'Vidyanagara' in memory of the sage Vidyaranya who is said to have been mainly responsible for the founding of the city.
The ruins of the imperial city of Vijayanagara are spread over a vast area of 26 square kilometers covering several modern villages, while the outer modern villages, while the outer lines of its fortifications include a still larger areas. The monuments, which are popularly known as the Hampi ruins, are mainly situated between the villages of Kampalapuram in the south and Hampi in the north.

EARLY REFERENCES

HAMPI, traditionally known as the Pampa-kshetra, Kishkindha-kshetra or Bhaskara-kshetra, has an unbroken tradition of sanctity from ancient days and still continues to be an important pilgrimage centre. Pampa is the ancient name of the river Tungabhadra. The word Hampe or Hampi is generally held to be a later Kannada form of the term Pampa. The ancient Kishkindha of the Ramayana is believed to have been situated close to Hampi. Kishkindha was ruled by the monkey-chiefs, Vali and Sugriva. After a quarrel, Sugriva, who had been driven out, took refuge on the Matanga -parvatam along with Hanuman. After sita had been carried away to Lanka by Ravana, Rama and Lakshmana came south in search of Sita and met the refugees, Sugriva and Hanuman. Rama killed Vali, restored to Sugriva his kingdom and then stayed on the

Malyavanta hill nearby awaiting the results of Hanuman's search for Sita in Lanka. Hampi and its environs are considered holy ground and many of its .sites and names are connected with the episodes of the Ramayana. Thus the Matanga-parvatam, on which Sugriva took refuge, is a steep hill on the south bank of the Tungabhadra and to the east of the Hampi village.A good view of the surrounding country can be had from the top of this hill. The Malyavanta hill, on which Rama stayed, is on the road to Kampili and has a Raghunatha temple with a large image of Rama. A huge mound of scorious ash in the adjacent village of Nimbapuram is believed to be the cremated remains of Vali. A cavern on the southern bank of the Tungabhadra is said to be the cave where Sugriva hid Sita's jewels for safety, while certain marks and streaks on the sheet rock near it are pointed out as the marks made by Sita's garments. The Anjanagiri and Rishyamukha hills and the sacred tanks of Pampasaras are on the northern bank of the Tungabhadra.

 

HISTORY

The history of the Hampi region dates back to the neolithic / chalcolithic times as can be ascertained from the discovery of neoliths and handmade pottery in recent excavations near the Vitthala temple here. That the region was within the Asokan empire may be surmised from the recent discovery of Minor Rockedicts-one from Nittur and the other from Ude-golam, both in District Bellary. Mention may also be made about the discovery of a Brahmi inscription and a terracotta seal of the second century AD from the excavation.

Prior to the rise of the Vijayanagara dynasty, Hampi and its environs were under the control of the various dynasties which ruled over the Karnataka country in succession such as the Kadambas, the Chalukyas of Badami, the Rashtrakutas, the Chalukyas of Kalyani, the Hoysalas, Yadavas and others. Often it was ruled by one or other of the feudatories of these powers, such as the chiefs of Kurugodu Anegondi, Kampili etc. Immediately, before the rise of the Vijayanagara dynasty the place was probably under the control of the chiefs of Kampili which is now a small town, about 19 km east of Hampi was a Western Chalukyan capital in the eleventh century.

In the first half of the fourteenth century south India was seriously affected by the Muslim inroads of Malik Kafur, the general of 'Alau'd-Din Khaiji, and by the imperial ambitions of Muhammad-bin Tughluq. The attempt of the southern powers to resist the Muslim inroads finally culminated in the rise of the Vijayanagara empire which acted as a bulwark of Hindu culture and nationalism for nearly four centuries. The empire soon rose to such heights of splendour and magnificence that it won the admiration of every contemporary visitor.

The origin of this medieval power is surrounded by so much of mystery and obscurity that numerous legends and accounts have grown up and a number of heories are advocated regarding it. Taking into consideration all the available evidence it seems likely that the kingdom of Kampili played a most significant role in the rise of Vijayanagara.

In the early fourteenth century, between AD 1303 and 1327, Kampili became the seat of an independent principality for a short time under the family of Kampiladeva. Kampila and his father Mummadi Singa were feudatories of Ramadeva, the Yadava ruler of Devagiri, and often helped him against the Hoysala Ballala III. After the capture of Devagiri by the Sultan of Delhi, Kampila appears to have become an independent ruler. He steadily built up a large kingdom which included parts of modern Anantapur, Chitradurga, Shimoga, Raichur, Dharwar and Bellary Districts. His son Ramanatha was noted for his heroic strength and valour. The ambitious Kampila was frequently at war with the Hoysala Ballala III, Prataparudra, the Kakatiya ruler of Warangal and the Sultan of Delhi. Muhammad-bin-TughIuq led several expeditions against

Kampila since he had sheltered the rebel refugee Bahau'd-Din Garshasp. Kampila and his son fell fighting and the kingdom became a province of the Delhi empire in about AD 1326-27.

Two brothers, Harihara and Bukka, the treasury officers of Kampila, were taken by Muhammad-bin-Tughluq as prisoners to Delhi where they appear to have embraced Islam. The brothers had originally been in the service of the Kakatiya Prataparudra of Warangal and had fled south to Kampili, after the Muslim conquest of Warangal in AD 1323. After Muhammad-bin-TughIuq left for north India in AD 1329 there were many rebellions against the imperial rule and a number of liberation-movements in the south. The Muslim governor of Kampili, unable to maintain order, appealed to Delhi for the help. The Sultan then sent Harihara and Bukka to govern the province. The brothers not only restored order but in a short time gave up Islam, threw off their allegiance to Delhi and set up an independent kingdom. This was the beginning of the mighty and splendid medieval Hindu empire of Vijayanagara.

Harihara was the eldest of the five sons of Sangama, the other four being Kampana, Bukka, Marappa and Mudappa. Starting with the conquest of Gutti (modern Gooty) and its neighbourhood, Harihara, ably assisted by Bukka, built up within a few years a kingdom stretching from coast to coast. In this memorable work the great Hindu sage, Vidyaranya of Sringeri-matha, played a significant role and rendered the brothers the necessary moral and spiritual guidance. Acting under the orders of Vidyaranya, their guru, Harihara and Bukka completed their imperial chemes and founded in about AD 1336 the splendid city of Vijayanagara or Vidyanagara as the capital of their newly-established empire.

The new city on the southern bank of the Tungabhadra, opposite the older fortress of Anegondi on the northern bank, was completed by AD 1343. The Vijayanagara kings had the boar-crest and made use of the sign-manual 'Virupaksha', since they considered themselves the deputies of the god Virupaksha.

The early Vijayanagara rulers belonged to what was known as the Sangama dynasty. Harihara I (AD 1336-57) jointly with his brother Bukka, did much to lay the administrative system of the new empire on firm foundations. Bukka I reigned as sole sovereign from AD 1357 to 1377. This period is noted not only for the embassy sent by Bukka to China in AD 1374 but also for the overthrow of the Muslim sultanate of Madura by his son Kumara Kampana and the restoration of Hindu rule in the far south in about AD 1370.

Bukka's large empire was divided into a number of rajyas mostly ruled over by royal princes and nobles. Bukka's son- Harihara II (AD 1377 - 1404), set up his own sons as provincial viceroys. Under Harihara II, the Krishna became the northern boundary of the empire, while a successful expedition was sent even to Ceylon in the south. Some of the earliest monuments of the Vijayanagara period in the capital city may be traced to the time of Harihara II, e.g., the Ganigitti temple. The fortifications and irrigation-works in Vijayanagara owed much to the efforts of Bukka I and Devaraya I, the son of Harihara II. The Italian Nicolo Conti visited Vijayanagara in about AD 1420 during the reign of Devaraya I and has left an interesting description of the city.

Devaraya II (AD 1422-46) was a powerful ruler. He waged wars with the Bahmanis and invaded Orissa. 'Abdu'r-Razzaq, the Persian Ambassador, who visited Vijayanagara in his reign, states that Devaraya's empire covered the whole of south India and stretched from Ceylon to Gulbarga and from Orissa to Malabar. Devaraya is also stated to have levied tribute from Burma and Ceylon. He was not only a great conqueror but also a good scholar and author, a liberal patron of arts and letters and a great builder. Razzaq's description of the capital city in AD 1443 illustrates the splendid heights reached by the Vijayanagara architects and sculptors.

The glorious rule of Devaraya II was followed by a period of decline and disruption when there were weak rulers, foreign inroads, political murders and usurpations leading to changes of dynasty. Thus, for a short time the Saluva dynasty was in power. The second usurpation in AD 1492 was by the Tuluva general Narasa Nayaka who imprisoned the boy-king Immadi Narasimha, quelled many rebellions, recovered the Raichur Doab from Bijapur, and firmly established the authority of the empire from the Krishna to Cape Comorin. He was succeeded by his son Immadi Narasa Nayaka alias Vira Narasimha. After the imprisoned boy-king Immadi Narasimha was murdered in AD 1505, Vira Narasimha threw off the mask of regency and became king (AD 1505-09). With him started the third or Tuluva dynasty.

After a short reign Vira Narasimha was succeeded by his step-brother Krishnadeva Raya (AD 1509-29) who was not only the greatest of the Vijayanagara rulers, but also one of the most brilliant medieval rulers. Under

him the empire passed through a golden age. His armies were successful everywhere and imperial authority was firmly established all over south India. He inflicted crushing defeats on the Bahmani Sultans, took the coveted Raichur Doab, conquered Telengana and carried on his campaigns as far north as Orissa. He maintained friendly diplomatic relations with the Portuguese on the western coast. An accomplished scholar and poet, he wrote many Sanskrit and Telugu works. His Telugu poem Amuktamalyada contains a character-sketch of an ideal monarch and the principles of political administration to be followed by him. He was also a liberal patron of arts and letters. The noted Telugu poet Allasani Peddanna was his poet laureate, while his court is stated to have been graced by eight poets known as the Ashta-diggajas. A fine life-size portrait group (in copper) of the king and his two consorts was set up in the Tirupati temple by the king himself and is thus of immense value as contemporary portraits of the royal personages.

South Indian architecture owes much to the building activities of this ruler who made munificent gif ts to innumerable temples. The capital city was lavishly embellished by him. The smaller cast gopura and the ranga-mandapa of the Pampapati temple, the huge Narasimha figure and the Krishna temple are just a few of the numerous additions made by him to the imperial city. He also made many improvements to existing structures such as the Vitthala and Hazara Rama temples. In modern Hospet and its environs he built several new suburban cities and named them in honour of his mother (Nagalapura), queen (Tirumaladeviyara-pattana), and son Tirumala (Sale Tirumala Maharajapura). Many irrigation-projects were also undertaken and a big reservoir built near Hospet.

Duarte Barbosa, who was a cousin of Magellan, the celebrated world-circumnavigator, and the Portuguese chroniclers, Paes and Nuniz, were among the many foreigners who visited Vijayanagara during, Krishnadeva Raya's reign. They have left glowing and graphic accounts of the magnificence of the capital, the court, the buildings, the festivals, etc.

After Krishnadeva Raya's death in AD 1529 there followed a period of steady decline. His step- brother Achyuta Raya (AD 1529-42) had to struggle against external enemies as well as internal dissensions and rivals to the throne. Achyuta was also a great patron of arts and letter. His court poet Rajanatna Dindima wrote a biography of his patron in his poem Achyutarayabhyudaya. Achyuta built the Achyuta Raya temple (Tiruvengalanatha temple of the inscription) at Hampi and made many addition to the Vitthala and other temples. His officer Ramayamatya built a large

number of temples and tanks in Timmalapuram and other places. Achyuta was succeeded by his infant son Venkata I (AD 1542) who was soon murdered. Then Achyuta's nephew Sadasiva (AD 1542-76) became king, though the real power was in the hands of regent Rama Raya, the son-in-law of Krishnadeva Raya.

With Rama Raya the fourth or Aravidu dynasty came to power. Rama Raya interfered in the political affairs of the Deccan sultanates and tried to play off one state against the other, with the result that the Muslim rulers soon closed their ranks and formed a confederacy against Vijayanagara. Rama Raya also gathered a huge army. The decisive battle was fought in January 1565 near the villages of Rakshasi and Tangdi on the banks of the Krishna. The Vijayanagara army was at first successful and had almost won the battle, when the tables were turned by the treachery and desertion of two Muslim generals in the Hindu army. Rama Raya was captured and immediately decapitated by the Sultan of Ahmadnagar. In the absence of proper leadership, great confusion arose in the ranks of the Vijyanagara army which resulted in their complete rout.

Rama Raya's brother Tirumala escaped and fled, carrying with him the imperial treasures, the puppet-emperor Sadasiva and the members of the royal harem. The capital city of Vijayanagara was left to its own fate undefended and lay at the mercy of sporadic plunderers and the soldiers of the victorious enemies.

The conquerors carried out the process of destruction in a ruthless fashion. The city never recovered its former splendour though Tirumala returned to it and attempted a revival. The city ceased to be the capital of the Vijayanagara empire but the ruling dynasty continued, the rulers moving their capitals from one place to another. Rama Raya's brother Tirumala along with the captive king Sadasiva at first took refuge at Penukonda. The capital was moved to Chandragiri in about AD 1585 and from there to Vellore in about AD 1604. Sriranga III (AD 1642-49) was the last ruler of the dynasty. After the disaster of Rakshasi-Tangdi the city of Vijayanagara and its environs fell under the sway of the Bijapur and Golkonda sultanates and in about AD 1689 under that of Aurangzeb. After AD 1707 they were annexed to the dominions of the Nizam of Hyderabad from whom Haidar Ali annexed them in about AD 1780. While the medieval imperial city is at present in ruins, the village of Hampi, with its temple of Virupaksha and the holy sites and shrines of the Matanga and Malyavanta hills, still continue as a centre of pilgrimage.

ARCHITECTURE

The extant monuments in the ruined city of Vijayanagara and its environs have a particular attraction to the student of architecture. Since Vijayanagara had been an imperial capital for over two centuries, it is no wonder that some of the finest specimens of the period are found, though in a ruinous state, in the heart of this city. While a considerable proportion of the buildings was due to the liberal patronage of Krishnadeva Raya, the structures in the city range from the time of the early rulers like Harihara II to that of Sadasiva. The monuments consist mainly of religious, civil and military buildings.

RELIGIOUS ARCHITECTURE

PRE-VlJAYANAGARA PERIOD.-While the bulk of the buildings belong to the Vijayanagara period and style, a small proportion may be assigned to pre Vijayanagara times. These monuments, being found side by side with the later Vijayanagara ones, offer immense scope for study. Most of these early antiquities are found in or near the village of Hampi. The so-called Jaina temples on the Hemakuta hill, the two Devi shrines and a number of other structures in the Virupaksha temple-complex and the shrines around the Manmatha Gundam tank to the north of the Virupaksha are a few instances of the monuments assignable to the pre-Vijayanagara period. The earliest among these are probably some of the small temples to the north of Virupaksha temple, which may date back to about the ninth-tenth century AD at the earliest. Most of these monuments are of the later Chalukyan style. The neat-looking stone temples on the Hemakuta hill with their stepped pyramidal vimanas form a class by themselves. It is interesting to note that all the structures of this type in and around the village of Hampi are siva shrines, while one further east on the southern bank of the Tungabhadra is a Vaishnava shrine, and those in the south-eastern part of the city arc all Jaina shrines.

VIJAYANAGARA PERIOD.-In the realm of fine arts Vijayanagara had made an outstanding contribution by the development of a style of temple-architecture

called after its own name and occupying a distinct place in the history of south Indian temple-architecture. This style was more or less coterminous with the history of the dynasty and roughly covered the period from AD 1350 to 1600. It was evolved out of Pandya and Later Chalukyan elements.

Though ornate and magnificently exuberant, it was not cloyingly florid like the Later Chalukyan and Hoysala schools. The material used was hard granite.

The plan of the typical Vijayanagara temple exhibits most of the characteristic features of the temples of the Tamil country. Invariably there is a separate shrine for the goddess slightly to the rear of the main sanctum of the god, as is found in temples in the Tamil area. Often the shrine of the goddess in the Vaishnava temples at Vijayanagara contains another subshrine. Most of the Vijayanagara temples at Hampi have a covered and pillared pradakshina-prakara round the garbhagriha and antarala. The garbhagyaha and antarala have a continuous adhishthana which starts at a level lower than the covered prakara. The exterior wall-surfaces of the covered prakara are decorated with adhishathna mouldings, wall-pilasters, kumbha-panjaras and devakoshthas. Generally the ardhamandapa has four ornate central pillars and two side porches with steps and surul yali balustrades. The mahamandapa is a highly ornate structure with many fine specimens of composite pillars. It is the most profusely embellished part of a Vijayanagara temple being rivalled only by the kalyana-mandapa.

The kalyana-mandapa is one of the highlights of the Vijayanagara style. This is usually an open pillared mandapa often with a raised platform in the centre, over which a pitha was placed for seating the deity and his consort during the annual kalyana (marriage) festival of the god. The sculptor's skill was fully lavished on these mandapas which contained elaborately carved and symmetrically-spaced compound pillars of various types. The ceilings were also carved. Originally these mandapas appear to have been painted and were often the most ornate of the structures in the temple-complexes.

The florid and exquisite Vijayanagara pillar contributed not a little to the peculiar charm of the style. The pillars are of various types-both ordinary and composite.

Often the position of a pillar in a structure determined its particular type. Generally the pillars in the interior of mandapa are of the ornate cubical variety having pushpapodigai corbels with or without joining bands (the solid ones without bands being earlier in style). The composite pillars are of the yottikkal type and consist of a main pillar shaft of the ordinary ornate cubical type with an attached shaft where an infinite variety is introduced. Thus the attached shaft may have slender columnettes, yalis (either ordinary or gaja-yalis) rearing horses iconographic sculpture or portrait-sculpture. The slender columnettes may be solidly attached to the main shaft attached by delicate cut-work or detached from it; and their number may vary from a single one to as many as fifteen. The yali pillars also may or may not have intricate cut-work. The composite pillars thus range from the plain and simple type of main shaft with a single attached columnette to elaborate monoliths measuring several metres across each pillar constituting a veritable sculptural group. The mahamandapa of the Vitthala temple at Hampi contains the most massive and the most striking specimens of such fantasies in stone.

The mantapas often have large elephant-balustrades flanking the entrance-steps. The pillars along the outer edge of the mandapa are of various composite types. Generally the pair at the centre of each side is of the gaja-yali type. Corner and angle pillars usually have main shafts with slender columnettes the corner ones being often set at an angle. The main cornice of the mandapa is of the cyma recta type often highly ornate, with simulated wood-work below. Usually there are rings at the corners with hanging stone chains (most of which are not extinct now).

The Vijayanagara gopuras at Hampi are in typical style, though they are of moderate size.

CIVIL ARCHITECTURE

Most of the civil buildings at Hampi are concentrated in the citadel area. Unfortunately they arc mostly ruined. Of the gorgeous multi-storeyed painted and gilded palaces and mansions of Vijayanagara extolled by contemporary writers, there is hardly anything left except a few stone basements, since the brick and timber superstructures have all disappeared now. Compared to the original state of the city, the extant ruined specimens are only a handful and represent in all likelihood the minor edifices such as the elephant-stables. Important structures like the royal residences and other state buildings have been razed to the ground. At present the civil buildings at Hampi include a number of palace-bases, open pavilions, pillared halls, baths and stables. To this class of monuments may also be added some of the long and broad ancient bazaars of the city.

For civil architecture, stone was used for the base .while various materials, like stone, wood, metal and brick, were employed in the superstructure. The pillars were of timber or stone. Sometimes pillars with a stone core were covered with brick and mortar and finished with plaster. The arch, especially the wide four-centred type, was freely used in the construction. Elaborately ornate stucco decorations were largely used. The lotus and rampant yali motifs were most common. Ceilings were domed or vaulted. Often the superstructure above a palace-building had a number of diminishing tiers of kapotas (cornices) capped by a sikhara resembling a temple-vimana (e.g. the Lotus-Mahal at Hampi and the Gagan-Mahal at Penukonda). The buildings were originally painted and gilded.

MILITARY ARCHITECTURE

Nature has endowed the terrain of Vijayanagara with great strength and strategic importance. The rulers of Vijayanagara were not slow to make use of the natural advantages present and linking up the perennial and unfordable Tungabhadra, the gigantic granite, boulders and steep and unclimbable hills, by means of massive lines of fortification-walls, they created a vast enclosed area almost impregnable. With its outer line of fortifications Vijayanagara was more than 26 square kilometres in area. Its northern outpost was Anegondi on the northern bank of the Tungabhadra, the eastern outpost being Kampili 19 kilometres to the north-east. The southernmost line of the fortifications runs about three kilometres to the south-west of Hospet.

Of the extant fortifications the most prominent and interesting features are the massive walls, and the strong gateways. As usual the walls are built of large blocks of dressed stone without any cementing material. The method of construction is interesting.

The two facings are made of large wedge-shaped slabs with the point of the wedges inwards while the intervening gaps in the core are filled in with earth. The stone gateways appear originally to have had ornate brick and mortar superstructure. The gateways range from simple types, which serve as mere entrances, to strong and elaborate ones with sally ports, bastions, and inner courts with guard rooms such as the massive Bhima's gate and the south-west gate with the Hanuman Temple. All the entrances and gateways were high enough to enable elephants to pass through, and many of them had ornate embellishments. The gateways were flanked by shrines to be respective guardian deities and sometimes had figures of Bhima or Hanuman or a chieftain or a linga, in relief, carved on their walls.


IMPORTANT MONUMENTS AT HAMPI

1. Queens Bath 2. King's Palace - Enclosure 3. Hazara Rama Temple 4. The Mint 5. Excavated sites 6. Danaik's enclosure 7. The Zanana - enclosure 8. Ganagitti Temple 9. Pattabhirama Temple 10. Octagonal Water Pavilion and Bhojana Sala 11. Large Underground Temple 12. Uddhana Virabhadra Temple 13. Chandikesvara or Chandesvara Temple 14. Image of Lakshmi Narasimha 15. Siva Temple 16. Saraswathi Temple 17. Krishna Temple 18. Sasvekalu and Kadalekalu Ganesha Images 19. Vishnupada 20. Temples on the Hemakuta hills 21. Virupaksha Temple 22. Temples north of the Virupaksha Temple 23. Kodandarama Temple 24. Achyutaraya Temple 25. Matanga Parvatam 26. Varaha Perumal Temple 27. Rama Temple 28. King's balance 29. Stone Bridge 30. Raja Gopura 31. Vishnu Temple 32. Vitthala Temple 33. Malyavanta Raghunatha Temple. And monuments at : 34. Anegondi 35. Hospet 36. Ananthasayanagudi 37. Malapannagudi 38. Kamalapuram 39. Kadiramapuram

UNESCO CULTURAL AND NATURAL SITES IN INDIA

The Cultural Sites are Ajanta Caves (242), Ellora Caves (243), Agra Fort (251), Taj Mahal, Agra (252), Sun Temple Konarak (246), Mahabalipuram Group of Monuments (249), Goa Churches and Convents (234), Khajuraho Group of Monuments (240)

Group of Monuments at Hampi (241), Fatehpur Sikri. Mughal City (255). Group of Monuments at Pattadakal (239), Elephanta Caves (244). Brihadisvara temple, Thanjavur (250), Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (524), Humayun's Tomb (232) and Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi (233), The Natural Sites are Keoladeo National Park (340), Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (338), Kaziranga National Park (337), Sundarbans National \Paik (452) and Nanda Devi National Park (335).

Colour Slides, Transparencies and Photographs, video are available for above Cultural and Natural sites.